Amgen Announces Positive Top-Line Results From XGEVA® (Denosumab) Phase 3 Trial For Delay Of Bone Complications In Multiple Myeloma Patients
Adverse events observed in patients treated with XGEVA were generally consistent with the known safety profile of XGEVA. The most common adverse events (greater than 25 percent) in the XGEVA arm of the study were diarrhea and nausea.
"Bone complications like fracture, spinal cord compression and radiation or surgery to bone are devastating for multiple myeloma patients. Many of these patients suffer from renal impairment, which has limited their treatment options," said
Detailed results will be submitted to a future medical conference and for publication. The Company plans to submit these data to regulatory authorities.
About '482 Study (NCT01345019)
The '482 study was an international, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of XGEVA compared with zoledronic acid in the prevention of bone complications in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. In the study, a total of 1,718 patients (859 on each arm) were randomized to receive either subcutaneous XGEVA 120 mg and intravenous placebo every four weeks, or intravenous zoledronic acid 4 mg (adjusted for renal function) and subcutaneous placebo every four weeks. The primary endpoint of the study was non-inferiority of XGEVA versus zoledronic acid with respect to time to first on-study SRE (fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone or spinal cord compression). Secondary endpoints included superiority of XGEVA versus zoledronic acid with respect to time to first on-study SRE and first-and-subsequent on-study SRE and overall survival.The safety and tolerability of XGEVA were also compared with zoledronic acid.
About Multiple Myeloma and Bone Complications
Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic cancer, and it develops in plasma cells located in the bone marrow.1,2 Each year an estimated 114,000 new cases of multiple myeloma are diagnosed worldwide, resulting in more than 80,000 deaths per year.2
Bone lesions frequently accompany multiple myeloma and can increase the risk of bone complications.3,4 Approximately 75 percent of multiple myeloma patients are treated for the prevention of bone complications.5 Preventing bone complications is an important aspect of caring for patients with multiple myeloma, because these events can cause significant morbidity.6
About XGEVA® (denosumab)
XGEVA targets the RANK ligand pathway to prevent the formation, function and survival of osteoclasts, which break down bone. XGEVA is indicated for the prevention of SREs in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors and for treatment of adults and skeletally mature adolescents with giant cell tumor of bone that is unresectable or where surgical resection is likely to result in severe morbidity. XGEVA is also indicated in the U.S. for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy refractory to bisphosphonate therapy. XGEVA is not indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with multiple myeloma.
U.S. Important Safety Information
Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating therapy with XGEVA. XGEVA can cause severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, and fatal cases have been reported. Monitor calcium levels, especially in the first weeks of initiating therapy, and administer calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D as necessary. Monitor levels more frequently when XGEVA is administered with other drugs that can also lower calcium levels. Advise patients to contact a healthcare professional for symptoms of hypocalcemia.
An increased risk of hypocalcemia has been observed in clinical trials of patients with increasing renal dysfunction, most commonly with severe dysfunction (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/minute and/or on dialysis), and with inadequate/no calcium supplementation. Monitor calcium levels and calcium and vitamin D intake.
XGEVA is contraindicated in patients with known clinically significant hypersensitivity to XGEVA, including anaphylaxis that has been reported with use of XGEVA. If an anaphylactic or other clinically significant allergic reaction occurs, initiate appropriate therapy and discontinue XGEVA therapy permanently.
Drug Products with Same Active Ingredient
Patients receiving XGEVA should not take Prolia® (denosumab).
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has occurred in patients receiving XGEVA, manifesting as jaw pain, osteomyelitis, osteitis, bone erosion, tooth or periodontal infection, toothache, gingival ulceration, or gingival erosion. Persistent pain or slow healing of the mouth or jaw after dental surgery may also be manifestations of ONJ. In clinical trials in patients with osseous metastasis, the incidence of ONJ was higher with longer duration of exposure.
Patients with a history of tooth extraction, poor oral hygiene, or use of a dental appliance are at a greater risk to develop ONJ. Other risk factors for the development of ONJ include immunosuppressive therapy, treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors, systemic corticosteroid, diabetes, and gingival infections.
Perform an oral examination and appropriate preventive dentistry prior to the initiation of XGEVA and periodically during XGEVA therapy. Advise patients regarding oral hygiene practices. Avoid invasive dental procedures during treatment with XGEVA. Consider temporarily interrupting XGEVA therapy if an invasive dental procedure must be performed.
Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ while on XGEVA should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition.
Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fracture
Atypical femoral fracture has been reported with XGEVA. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are transverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution.
Atypical femoral fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) at the time of fracture. During XGEVA treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Patient presenting with an atypical femur fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of XGEVA therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.
XGEVA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on findings in animals, XGEVA is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects. Advise females of reproductive potential to use highly effective contraception during therapy, and for at least five months after the last dose of XGEVA. Apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus if XGEVA is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while patients are exposed to XGEVA.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA with bone metastasis from solid tumors were fatigue/asthenia, hypophosphatemia, and nausea. The most common serious adverse reaction was dyspnea.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA for giant cell tumor of bone were arthralgia, headache, nausea, back pain, fatigue, and pain in extremity. The most common serious adverse reactions were osteonecrosis of the jaw and osteomyelitis. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA were osteonecrosis of the jaw and tooth abscess or tooth infection.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA for hypercalcemia of malignancy were nausea, dyspnea, decreased appetite, headache, peripheral edema, vomiting, anemia, constipation, and diarrhea.
Denosumab is also marketed as Prolia® in other indications.
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Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation. What is Multiple Myeloma? https://www.themmrf.org/multiple-myeloma/what-is-multiple-myeloma/. Accessed Oct. 7, 2016.
- Globocan 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence in 2012. http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx. Accessed
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- Roodman GD. Pathogenesis of myeloma bone disease. Leukemia. 2009;23(3):435–441.
- Terpos E, et al.
International Myeloma Working Grouprecommendations for the treatment of multiple myeloma-related bone disease. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(18):2347-57. Amgendata on file.
- Drake MT. Bone disease in multiple myeloma. Oncology (
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