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Results From Phase 3 XGEVA® (Denosumab) Study In Patients With Multiple Myeloma Published In The Lancet Oncology
"Osteolytic bone disease and renal dysfunction are the most frequent complications of multiple myeloma, affecting up to 90 and 60 percent of patients respectively," said
"Preventing bone complications is critical for patients with multiple myeloma," said
The median time to first on-study skeletal-related event was 22.8 months for XGEVA and 24 months for zoledronic acid. Approximately 60 percent of all first skeletal-related events occurred within the first three months, and 81 percent occurred within the first six months. Overall survival, a secondary endpoint of the study, was similar between the XGEVA and zoledronic acid arms, with a hazard ratio of 0.90 (95 percent CI: 0.70-1.16). Progression-free survival, an exploratory endpoint not powered for statistical significance, was 46.1 months (95 percent CI: 34.3 months-not estimable [NE], n=219) for XGEVA and 35.4 months (95 percent CI: 30.2 months-NE, n=260) for zoledronic acid on top of standard of care anti-myeloma therapy.
The safety profile was consistent with known adverse events of both XGEVA and zoledronic acid. There were fewer renal treatment-emergent adverse events in the XGEVA arm compared to the zoledronic acid arm (10 percent versus 17 percent, respectively). Hypocalcaemia events were higher in the XGEVA arm compared to the zoledronic acid arm (17 percent versus 12 percent, respectively). Osteonecrosis of the jaw was observed in 4 percent of the XGEVA-treated patients versus 3 percent of the zoledronic acid-treated patients. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (greater than 25 percent) were diarrhea and nausea.
XGEVA is the first fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralizes RANK ligand (RANKL) – a protein essential for the formation, function and survival of osteoclasts, cells which break down bone – thereby inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. XGEVA is not cleared by the kidneys. On
About '482 Study (NCT01345019)
The '482 study was an international, Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of XGEVA compared with zoledronic acid in the prevention of skeletal-related events in adult patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and bone disease. In the study, a total of 1,718 patients (859 on each arm) were randomized to receive either subcutaneous XGEVA 120 mg and intravenous placebo every four weeks, or intravenous zoledronic acid 4 mg (adjusted for renal function at baseline) and subcutaneous placebo every four weeks, plus investigators' choice first-line antimyeloma therapy. Skeletal surveys using conventional radiography were obtained every 12 to 24 weeks per protocol. The primary endpoint of the study was non-inferiority of XGEVA versus zoledronic acid with respect to time to first on-study skeletal-related event (pathologic fracture, radiation to bone, surgery to bone or spinal cord compression). Secondary endpoints included superiority of XGEVA versus zoledronic acid with respect to time to first on-study skeletal-related event and first-and-subsequent on-study skeletal-related event and evaluation of overall survival. Progression-free survival was a prespecified, exploratory endpoint and was not powered for statistical significance. The safety and tolerability of XGEVA were also compared with zoledronic acid. An open-label extension of the study is ongoing.
About Multiple Myeloma and Bone Complications
Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic cancer, and it develops in plasma cells located in the bone marrow microenvironment.1,2 It is typically characterized by osteolytic bone lesions as well as renal failure, which are both part of diagnosis (CRAB criteria).3,4 Each year an estimated 114,000 new cases of multiple myeloma are diagnosed worldwide, resulting in more than 80,000 deaths per year.1
More than 90 percent of patients develop osteolytic lesions during the course of the disease.3 Preventing bone complications is a critical aspect of caring for patients with multiple myeloma, because these events can result in significant morbidity.5 Current treatment options for fractures and other bone complications are limited to bisphosphonates, including zoledronic acid, which are cleared through the kidneys.6 Approximately 60 percent of all multiple myeloma patients have or will develop renal impairment over the course of the disease.7
About XGEVA® (denosumab)
XGEVA targets the RANKL pathway to prevent the formation, function and survival of osteoclasts, which break down bone. XGEVA is indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with multiple myeloma and in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. XGEVA is also indicated for treatment of adults and skeletally mature adolescents with giant cell tumor of bone that is unresectable or where surgical resection is likely to result in severe morbidity. Additionally, XGEVA is indicated in the U.S. for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy refractory to bisphosphonate therapy.
U.S. Important Safety Information
Pre-existing hypocalcemia must be corrected prior to initiating therapy with XGEVA®. XGEVA® can cause severe symptomatic hypocalcemia, and fatal cases have been reported. Monitor calcium levels, especially in the first weeks of initiating therapy, and administer calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D as necessary. Monitor levels more frequently when XGEVA® is administered with other drugs that can also lower calcium levels. Advise patients to contact a healthcare professional for symptoms of hypocalcemia.
An increased risk of hypocalcemia has been observed in clinical trials of patients with increasing renal dysfunction, most commonly with severe dysfunction (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/minute and/or on dialysis), and with inadequate/no calcium supplementation. Monitor calcium levels and calcium and vitamin D intake.
XGEVA® is contraindicated in patients with known clinically significant hypersensitivity to XGEVA®, including anaphylaxis that has been reported with use of XGEVA®. Reactions may include hypotension, dyspnea, upper airway edema, lip swelling, rash, pruritus, and urticaria. If an anaphylactic or other clinically significant allergic reaction occurs, initiate appropriate therapy and discontinue XGEVA® therapy permanently.
Drug Products with Same Active Ingredient
Patients receiving XGEVA® should not take Prolia® (denosumab).
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been reported in patients receiving XGEVA®, manifesting as jaw pain, osteomyelitis, osteitis, bone erosion, tooth or periodontal infection, toothache, gingival ulceration, or gingival erosion. Persistent pain or slow healing of the mouth or jaw after dental surgery may also be manifestations of ONJ. In clinical trials in patients with osseous metastasis, the incidence of ONJ was higher with longer duration of exposure.
Patients with a history of tooth extraction, poor oral hygiene, or use of a dental appliance are at a greater risk to develop ONJ. Other risk factors for the development of ONJ include immunosuppressive therapy, treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors, systemic corticosteroids, diabetes, and gingival infections.
Perform an oral examination and appropriate preventive dentistry prior to the initiation of XGEVA® and periodically during XGEVA® therapy. Advise patients regarding oral hygiene practices. Avoid invasive dental procedures during treatment with XGEVA®. Consider temporarily interrupting XGEVA® therapy if an invasive dental procedure must be performed.
Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ while on XGEVA® should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition.
Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fracture
Atypical femoral fracture has been reported with XGEVA®. These fractures can occur anywhere in the femoral shaft from just below the lesser trochanter to above the supracondylar flare and are transverse or short oblique in orientation without evidence of comminution.
Atypical femoral fractures most commonly occur with minimal or no trauma to the affected area. They may be bilateral and many patients report prodromal pain in the affected area, usually presenting as dull, aching thigh pain, weeks to months before a complete fracture occurs. A number of reports note that patients were also receiving treatment with glucocorticoids (e.g. prednisone) at the time of fracture. During XGEVA® treatment, patients should be advised to report new or unusual thigh, hip, or groin pain. Any patient who presents with thigh or groin pain should be suspected of having an atypical fracture and should be evaluated to rule out an incomplete femur fracture. Patients presenting with an atypical femur fracture should also be assessed for symptoms and signs of fracture in the contralateral limb. Interruption of XGEVA® therapy should be considered, pending a risk/benefit assessment, on an individual basis.
Hypercalcemia Following Treatment Discontinuation in Patients with Growing Skeletons
Clinically significant hypercalcemia has been reported in XGEVA® treated patients with growing skeletons, weeks to months following treatment discontinuation. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia and treat appropriately.
XGEVA® can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Based on findings in animals, XGEVA® is expected to result in adverse reproductive effects.
Advise females of reproductive potential to use highly effective contraception during therapy, and for at least 5 months after the last dose of XGEVA®. Apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus if XGEVA® is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while patients are exposed to XGEVA®.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® with bone metastasis from solid tumors were fatigue/asthenia, hypophosphatemia, and nausea. The most common serious adverse reaction was dyspnea. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation were osteonecrosis and hypocalcemia.
For multiple myeloma patients receiving XGEVA®, the most common adverse reactions were diarrhea, nausea, anemia, back pain, thrombocytopenia, peripheral edema, hypocalcemia, upper respiratory tract infection, rash, and headache. The most common serious adverse reaction was pneumonia. The most common adverse reaction resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA® was osteonecrosis of the jaw.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® for giant cell tumor of bone were arthralgia, headache, nausea, back pain, fatigue, and pain in extremity. The most common serious adverse reactions were osteonecrosis of the jaw and osteomyelitis. The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of XGEVA® were osteonecrosis of the jaw and tooth abscess or tooth infection.
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving XGEVA® for hypercalcemia of malignancy were nausea, dyspnea, decreased appetite, headache, peripheral edema, vomiting, anemia, constipation, and diarrhea.
Denosumab is also marketed as Prolia® in other indications.
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- Globocan 2012: Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence in 2012. http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_population.aspx. Accessed
Jan. 22, 2017. Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation. What is Multiple Myeloma? https://www.themmrf.org/multiple-myeloma/what-is-multiple-myeloma/. Accessed Jan. 22, 2017.
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International Myeloma Working Group. International Myeloma Working Group(IMWG) Criteria for the Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma. http://imwg.myeloma.org/international-myeloma-working-group-imwg-criteria-for-the-diagnosis-of-multiple-myeloma/. Accessed Jan. 22, 2017.
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- Terpos E, et al.
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- Bhowmik D, et al. Prevalence Of Renal Impairment In Patients With Multiple Myeloma: Analysis Of Real-World Database.
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